Selected Bibliography

There are currently two general histories of the American Colonization Society available. One has been the standard resource for over forty years: Philip Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961). The other is a new interpretation by Eric Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2005). Although no longer in print, another important resource on African colonization is Tom Shick, Behold the Promised Land: A History of Afro-American Settler Society in Nineteenth-Century Liberia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980). For the state that was most similar to Virginia in its African colonization experience, a new interpretation of the Maryland experience supplants an earlier one. The new study is Richard Hall, On Afric's Shore: A History of Maryland in Liberia, 1834-1857 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 2003) and the older study is Penelope Campbell, Maryland in Liberia: The Maryland State Colonization Society, 1831-1857 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.)

Other recent and useful studies that provide a background for considering African colonization and emigration are Claude A. Clegg, III, The Price of Liberty: African Americans and the Making of Liberia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); Kenneth Barnes, Journey of Hope: The Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the late 1800s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); and Alan Huffman, Mississippi in Africa: The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and their Legacy in Liberia Today (New York: Gotham Books, 2004).

For overviews of American slavery, see American Slavery, 1619-1977 by Peter Kolchin. 10th anniversary edition with a new preface and afterword. (New York: Hill and Wang, 2003); Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves by Ira Berlin (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003); Slavery and the Making of America by James Oliver Horton and Lois E. Horton (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); and Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World by David Brion Davis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).